By Frederick F. Holmes M.D. (auth.)
The lifetime of a man or woman is finite, and all people age (see Fries 1980). it truly is tricky to split the consequences of affliction on organs and tissues from these anticipated of getting older. this can be really actual for vascular and degenerative strategies, for which there are not any transparent barriers among getting older and affliction. Morbidity and mortality from center sickness and stroke are most likely due either to illness and to alterations of getting older. For melanoma, the second one major explanation for loss of life in the US, the placement is kind of assorted; melanoma is obviously a illness and isn't a transformation anticipated with getting older. melanoma prevalence raises nearly logarithmically after age forty. within the usa approximately one-half of all instances of melanoma are clinically determined after age sixty five, even if these over sixty five contain under one-eighth of the inhabitants. therefore, melanoma is particularly a lot a ailment of the aged. There are at the very least purposes for this: first, the lengthy publicity to cancer-inducing brokers, and moment, the waning energy of immune defenses opposed to cancer.
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4. Years survival by age and time groups for distantly spread bladder cancer However, there is less propensity toward chronicity, and there are few deaths with or of the disease after 5 years. Thus, cure is likely with survival to 5 years, and the absolute cure rate is actually in the neighborhood of 30%. In contrast to the local stage of this disease and to many other regional cancers, there is no mitigation of mortality with advancing age. Virtually all patients in the 85-94 age-group died with or of bladder cancer.
Though survival apparently improved in the 1970s, this is apparent and not significant. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment at this stage and there is obviously considerable room for improvement in survival rates. One can certainly hope that the trend of fewer patients in this stage will continue. Obviously a cheap and effective method for screening for this disease in asymptomatic patients would be of great benefit. Distant 49 Distant The number of patients who present with their cancers advanced to this stage is small but, as Fig.
Rehn (1895) described the relationship of bladder cancer to chemical exposure in the dye industry in Germany in 1895. Studies since have implicated several compounds and it seems likely there are others yet unknown. It takes a mean exposure time of more than 20 years to produce a bladder cancer in this setting, and more than 25% of workers sufficiently exposed will eventually develop this tumor. Beyond this- there is, once again, a strong association with cigarette smoking (Cobb and Ansell 1965).
Aging and Cancer by Frederick F. Holmes M.D. (auth.)